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Bursitis - an inflammatory disease of synovial bags, accompanied by increased production and accumulation of fluid in their cavities. The causes of this disease are bruised, abrasions, minor wounds and secondary infection of the bursa pyogenic microbes.

Most occur in the shoulder, elbow or knee in men younger than 35 years, especially athletes. There may also be affected hip, wrist or ankle. This is usually an occupational disease, but occurs in people who are overweight or wearing incorrectly matched shoes.

Swelling may be about 10 cm in diameter. It appears because the volume of articular bag abnormally increased. Exceeding the normal size takes place, for example, by blood. Rupture of blood vessels and bleeding occur as a result of a strong impact. Gradually, the blood components are decomposed, and the blood turns into a yellowish liquid. There is a pericardial effusion. The resulting bag pulls the skin, if the joint is shallow.

So in the cavity begins to accumulate exudate - a special liquid that is characteristic of inflammatory foci. Then the compression of adjacent tissues and into the extracellular space "squeezed" transudate. swelling, pressure appears on the nerves causing pain.

Edema can develop in the bursa located so deep that there is no visible change. This applies, for example, to the popliteal bursitis. In such "deep" cases can not do without X-rays. Sometimes accompanied by contrast radiography - bursografiya. In the bursa with a needle introduced a special colorant.

Neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils - leukocyte species. At different stages of the disease, their share, ie WBC, in cellular structure changes. The predominance of these defenders of cells associated with the presence of specific receptors, the ability to synthesize the toxins that accelerate the death of the pathogen. exudation mechanism is triggered when the penetration of the pathogenic agent, it contributes to the process of phagocytosis.

For bursitis is characterized by accumulation of salts in the walls of the articular bag - calcification. calcium salt must not contain them in undissolved form. This leads to the dysfunction. To restore the balance of the property are commonly used magnesium to dissolve abnormal deposits.

Bursa is a pocket located at the site of greatest friction on bony prominences. To mitigate this bag of connective tissue filled with synovial fluid viscous consistency. It is a kind of shock absorber movements hydraulic cushion. Such "tools" in the human body more than 100, respectively, and the risk of developing bursitis when a trigger factors is very large.

The cause of bursitis is usually a trauma, a bruise or abrasion, ie getting an infection through blood or patient portion defeat. It is also possible getting pus from erysipelas, is the case with osteomyelitis, bed sores, boils, carbuncles. This disease is more possible for people involved in traumatic sports: cyclists, footballers, jumpers. The infection gets through abrasions or severe injuries. Chronic manifestation of this disease is due to the constant irritation of inflammation focus.

There are other reasons:
Mechanical overstrain of the joint that occurs due to its "curvature" (eg, valgus foot deformity, flat feet), damage or weight lifting, wearing too narrow shoes and high heels, with excess weight;
Various diseases accompanied by inflammation, such as arthritis (gout and scleroderma, in particular), abrasions and without a carbuncle, erysipelas, osteomyelitis, SARS, influenza, sore throat, brucellosis, drives, bronchitis, sinusitis, otitis, abscesses;
Metabolic disorders, such as bedsores;
Calcification of tendons and surrounding areas;
Bursa injury, the patella tendon or adjoining;
Skin damage or pathological change in the area of ​​the joint, leading to penetration of infection into the bursa. This can occur by careless cutting of calluses and corns;
Allergy causes an overabundance of antibodies. In the acute phase of the immune response basophils secrete a variety of inflammatory mediators;
Poisoning (toxins entering the bloodstream, poisoning the fabric);
Autoimmune disease. The immune system produces antibodies with respect to normal tissues.

Excessive stress on the joints - a common occurrence. They are characteristic for women who love to walk in high heels, male, drag, gravity, and all the fat people. If bursitis develops as a complication of another disease, treatment is complex. Arthritis inflammation in the periarticular bag is thrown out of joint, osteomyelitis - bone marrow.

Types of bursitis

Experts use several grounds for the classification of this disease. By the nature of the disease distinguish acute and chronic bursitis. The acute form develops in a couple of days, chronic can take place with periodic exacerbations. These forms differ in the nature of pain.

Forms for the causes of bursitis:infectious or septic; aseptic, including traumatic.

The infection penetrates from the outside or from the inside: directly through broken skin, blood (hematogenous infection with pyogenic microbes) or lymph (lymphogenous). By the nature of the pathogen distinguish non-specific and specific bursitis.

Recent caused by the following pathogens: gonococci; brucellosis; staphylococci; streptococci; pneumococci; tuberculosis or E. coli.; pathogen type determines what will be fluid, as the disease will occur.

Cases when discovering swelling, the patient is doing nothing, continues to live on the principle of "self-pass". The swelling subsides. But usually this is only the beginning of indicator of chronic stage of the disease. Neglecting the treatment can trigger the spread of infection throughout the body.